Ancient Egypt for Kids
Ancient Egypt was a civilisation which prevailed in Egypt and the surrounding areas for an enormous 3,500-year period. Ancient Egypt stretched from the middle of the fourth millennium BC to the time the country was conquered by the Romans in 31 BC.
The Ancient Egyptians had their own particular culture and society, which was preserved across this time. Their civilisation was based along the River Nile which runs through Egypt and which provided the Egyptians with water for their crops.
Along the banks of the Nile, they built pyramids, vast tombs and temples to honour their dead and their many gods and goddesses. Most famous are the three Great Pyramids and the Sphinx at Giza outside modern-day Cairo.
Gods and Goddesses
The Ancient Egyptians worshipped hundreds of gods and goddesses, who often had human bodies with animal-shaped heads.
The most important person in Ancient Egypt was the king, called a ‘pharaoh’.
The Ancient Egyptians believed that making spells and carrying lucky charms, known as amulets, would keep them safe from evil spirits and keep them healthy.
The Ancient Egyptians believed that mummifying people when they died would preserve their body for the afterlife.
The most famous pyramids, which were built in the mid-third millennium BC, were constructed as vast tombs for the Egyptian pharaohs, their kings whom the Egyptians revered as god-like figures.
During the Bronze Age between 1600 BC and 1200 BC, Ancient Egypt reached its peak under great pharaohs such as Ramses II. At this time, Egypt built a great empire which stretched west into modern-day Libya, south into modern-day
Sudan and north-east to include parts of Sinai, Palestine and Canaan.
However, the Egyptian kingdom declined in later years; for many centuries afterwards, it was often ruled by foreign powers, notably the Greek Ptolemy family who ruled Egypt from their capital Alexandria from about 320 BC to 31 BC. Finally, the last pharaoh, Cleopatra, succumbed to the power of the Roman Empire and Ancient Egypt was no more.